NET/JRF: Paper I &Paper II

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NET BUREAU

SYLLABUS

Subject: GENERAL PAPER ON TEACHING & RESEARCH APTITUDE Code No. : 00

PAPER-I

The main objective is to assess the teaching and research capabilities of the candidates. The test aims at assessing the teaching and research aptitude as well. Candidates are expected to possess and exhibit cognitive abilities, which include comprehension, analysis, evaluation, understanding the structure of arguments, deductive and inductive reasoning. The candidates are also expected to have a general awareness about teaching and learning processes in higher education system. Further, they should be aware of interaction between people, environment, natural resources and their impact on the quality of life.

The details of syllabi are as follows:

Unit-I Teaching Aptitude

  • Teaching: Concept, Objectives, Levels of teaching (Memory,Understanding and Reflective), Characteristics and basic requirements.
  • Learner’s characteristics: Characteristics of adolescent and adult learners (Academic, Social, Emotional and Cognitive), Individual differences.
  • Factors affecting teaching related to: Teacher, Learner, Support material, Instructional facilities, Learning environment and Institution.
  • Methods of teaching in Institutions of higher learning: Teacher centred vs. Learner centred methods; Off-line vs. On-line methods (Swayam, Swayamprabha, MOOCs etc.).
  • Teaching Support System: Traditional, Modern and ICT based.
  • Evaluation Systems: Elements and Types of evaluation, Evaluation in Choice Based Credit System in Higher education, Computer based testing, Innovations in evaluation systems.

Unit-II Research Aptitude

  • Research: Meaning, Types, and Characteristics, Positivism and Postpositivistic approach to research.
  • Methods of Research: Experimental, Descriptive, Historical, Qualitative and Quantitative methods.
  • Steps of Research.
  • Thesis and Article writing: Format and styles of referencing.
  • Application of ICT in research.
  • Research ethics.

Unit-III Comprehension

  • A passage of text be given. Questions be asked from the passage to be answered.

Unit-IV Communication

  • Communication: Meaning, types and characteristics of communication.
  • Effective communication: Verbal and Non-verbal, Inter-Cultural and group communications, Classroom communication.
  • Barriers to effective communication.
  • Mass-Media and Society.

Unit-V Mathematical Reasoning and Aptitude

  • Types of reasoning.
  • Number series, Letter series, Codes and Relationships.
  • Mathematical Aptitude (Fraction, Time & Distance, Ratio, Proportion and Percentage, Profit and Loss, Interest and Discounting, Averages etc.).

Unit-VI Logical Reasoning

  • Understanding the structure of arguments: argument forms, structure of categorical propositions, Mood and Figure, Formal and Informal fallacies, Uses of language, Connotations and denotations of terms, Classical square of opposition.
  • Evaluating and distinguishing deductive and inductive reasoning.
  • Venn diagram: Simple and multiple use for establishing validity of arguments.
  • Indian Logic: Means of knowledge.
  • Pramanas: Pratyaksha (Perception), Anumana (Inference), Upamana (Comparison), Shabda (Verbal testimony), Arthapatti (Implication) and Anupalabddhi (Non-apprehension).
  • Structure and kinds of Anumana (inference), Vyapti (invariable relation), Hetvabhasas (fallacies of inference).

Unit-VII Data Interpretation

  • Sources, acquisition and classification of Data.
  • Quantitative and Qualitative Data.
  • Graphical representation (Bar-chart, Histograms, Pie-chart, Table-chart and Line-chart) and mapping of
  • Data Interpretation.
  • Data and Governance.

Unit-VIII Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

  • ICT: General abbreviations and terminology.
  • Basics of Internet, Intranet, E-mail, Audio and Video-conferencing.
  • Digital initiatives in higher education.
  • ICT and Governance.

Unit-IX People, Development and Environment

  • Development and environment: Millennium development and Sustainable development goals.
  • Human and environment interaction: Anthropogenic activities and their impacts on environment.
  • Environmental issues: Local, Regional and Global; Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution, Noise pollution, Waste (solid, liquid, biomedical, hazardous, electronic), Climate change and its Socio-Economic and Political dimensions.
  • Impacts of pollutants on human health.
  • Natural and energy resources: Solar, Wind, Soil, Hydro, Geothermal, Biomass, Nuclear and Forests.
  • Natural hazards and disasters: Mitigation strategies.
  • Environmental Protection Act (1986), National Action Plan on Climate Change, International agreements/efforts -Montreal Protocol, Rio Summit, Convention on Biodiversity, Kyoto Protocol, Paris Agreement, International Solar Alliance.

Unit-X Higher Education System

  • Institutions of higher learning and education in ancient India.
  • Evolution of higher learning and research in Post Independence India.
  • Oriental, Conventional and Non-conventional learning programmes in India.
  • Professional, Technical and Skill Based education.
  • Value education and environmental education.
  • Policies, Governance, and Administration.

NOTE:

(i) Five questions each carrying 2 marks are to be set from each  Module.

(ii) Whenever graphical/pictorial question(s) are set for sighted candidates, a passage followed by equal number of questions and weightage be set for visually impaired candidates.

UNIVERSITY GRANTS COMMISSION

NET BUREAU

NET SYLLABUS

Subject : GEOGRAPHY Code No.:(80)

Unit I – Geomorphology

Unit II – Climatology

Unit III- Oceanography

Unit IV- Geography of Environment

Unit V – Population and Settlement Geography

Unit VI- Geography of Economic Activities and Regional Development

Unit VII – Cultural, Social and Political Geography

Unit VIII – Geographic Thought

Unit IX – Geographical Techniques

Unit X- Geography of India

UNIT-I

Geomorphology

Continental Drift, Plate Tectonics, Endogenetic and Exogenetic forces. Denudation and Weathering, Geomorphic Cycle (Davis and Penck), Theories and Process of Slope Development, Earth Movements (seismicity, folding, faulting and vulcanicity), Landform Occurrence and Causes of Geomorphic Hazards

(earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides and avalanches)

UNIT –II

Climatology

Composition and Structure of Atmosphere; Insolation, Heat Budget of Earth, Temperature, Pressure and Winds, Atmospheric Circulation (air-masses, fronts and upper air circulation, cyclones and anticyclones (tropical and temperate), Climatic Classification of Koppen & Thornthwaite, ENSO Events (El Nino, La Nina and Southern Oscillations), Meteorological Hazards and Disasters (Cyclones, Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hailstorms, Heat and Cold waves Drought and Cloudburst , Glacial Lake Outburst (GLOF), Climate Change: Evidences and Causes of Climatic Change in the past, Human impact on Global Climate.

UNIT-III

Oceanography

Relief of Oceans, Composition: Temperature, Density and Salinity, Circulation: Warm and Cold Currents, Waves, Tides, Sea Level Changes, Hazards: Tsunami and Cyclone

UNIT –IV

Geography of Environment

Components: Ecosystem (Geographic Classification) and Human Ecology, Functions: Trophic Levels, Energy Flows, Cycles (geo-chemical, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen), Food Chain, Food Web and Ecological Pyramid, Human Interaction and Impacts, Environmental Ethics and Deep Ecology, Environmental Hazards and Disasters (Global Warming, Urban Heat Island, Atmospheric Pollution, Water Pollution, Land Degradation), National Programmes and Policies: Legal Framework, Environmental Policy, International Treaties, International Programmes and Polices (Brundtland Commission, Kyoto Protocol, Agenda 21, Sustainable Development Goals, Paris Agreement)

UNIT –V

Population and Settlement Geography

Population Geography

Sources of population data (census, sample surveys and vital statistics, data reliability and errors). World Population Distribution (measures, patterns and determinants), World Population Growth (prehistoric to modern period). Demographic Transition, Theories of Population Growth (Malthus, Sadler, and Ricardo). Fertility and Mortality Analysis (indices, determinants and world patterns). Migration (types, causes and consequences and models), Population Composition and Characteristics (age, sex, rural-urban, occupational structure and educational levels), Population Policies in Developed and Developing Countries.

Settlement Geography

Rural Settlements (types, patterns and distribution), Contemporary Problems ofRural Settlements ( rural-urban migration; land use changes; land acquisition and transactions), Theories of Origin of Towns (Gordon Childe, Henri Pirenne, Lewis Mumford), Characteristics and Processes of Urbanization in Developed and Developing Countries (factors of urban growth, trends of urbanisation, size, structure and functions of urban areas). Urban Systems ( the law of the primate city and rank size rule) Central Place Theories (Christaller and Losch), Internal Structure of the City, Models of Urban Land Use (Burgess, Harris and Ullman , and Hoyt), Concepts of Megacities, Global Cities and Edge Cities, Changing

Urban Forms (peri-urban areas, rural-urban fringe, suburban , ring and satellite towns), Social Segregation in the City, Urban Social Area Analysis, Manifestation of Poverty in the City (slums, informal sector growth, crime and social exclusion).

Unit–VI:

Geography of Economic Activities and Regional Development

Economic Geography

Factors affecting spatial organisation of economic activities (primary, secondary, tertiary and quarternary), Natural Resources (classification, distribution and associated problems), Natural Resources Management. World Energy Crises in Developed and Developing Countries.

Agricultural Geography

Land capability classification and Land Use Planning, Cropping Pattern: Methods of delineating crop combination regions (Weaver, Doi and Rafiullah), Crop diversification, Von Thunen’s Model of Land Use Planning. Measurement and Determinants of Agricultural Productivity, Regional variations in Agricultural Productivity, Agricultural Systems of the World. Industrial Geography

Classification of Industries, Factors of Industrial Location; Theories of Industrial Location (A. Weber, E. M. Hoover, August Losch, A. Pred and D. M. Smith). World Industrial Regions, Impact of Globalisation on manufacturing sector in Less Developed Countries, Tourism Industry, World distribution and growth of

Information And Communication Technology (ICT) and Knowledge Production (Education and R & D) Industries.

Geography of Transport and Trade

Theories and Models of spatial interaction (Edward Ullman and M. E. Hurst) Measures and Indices of connectivity and accessibility; Spatial Flow Models: Gravity Model and its variants, World Trade Organisation, Globalisation and Liberalisation and World Trade Patterns. Problems and Prospects of Inter and Intra Regional Cooperation and Trade.

Regional Development

Typology of Regions, Formal and Fictional Regions, World Regional Disparities, Theories of Regional Development(Albert O. Hirschman, Gunnar Myrdal, John Friedman, Dependency theory of Underdevelopment, Global Economic Blocks, Regional Development and Social Movements in India

Unit – VII: Cultural, Social and Political Geography

Cultural and Social Geography

Concept of Culture, Cultural Complexes, Areas and Region, Cultural Heritage, Cultural Ecology. Cultural Convergence, Social Structure and Processes, Social Well-being and Quality of Life, Social Exclusion, Spatial distribution of social groups in India (Tribe, Caste, Religion and Language), Environment and Human Health, Diseases Ecology, Nutritional Status (etiological conditions, classification and spatial and seasonal distributional patterns with special reference to India) Health Care Planning and Policies in India, Medical Tourism in India.

Political Geography

Boundaries and Frontiers (with special reference to India), Heartland and Rimland Theories. Trends and Developments in Political Geography, Geography of Federalism, Electoral Reforms in India, Determinants of Electoral Behaviour, Geopolitics of Climate Change, Geopolitics of World Resources, Geo-politics of India Ocean, Regional Organisations of Cooperation (SAARC, ASEAN, OPEC, EU). Neopolitics of World Natural Resources.

Unit VIII: Geographic Thought

Contributions of Greek, Roman, Arab, Chinese and Indian Scholars, Contributions of Geographers (Bernhardus Varenius, Immanuel Kant, Alexander von Humboldt, Carl Ritter, Scheafer & Hartshorne), Impact of Darwinian Theory on Geographical Thought. Contemporary trends in Indian Geography: Cartography, Thematic and Methodological contributions. Major Geographic Traditions (Earth Science, manenvironment relationship, area studies and spatial analysis), Dualisms in Geographic Studies (physical vs. human, regional vs. systematic, qualitative vs. quantitative, ideographic vs. nomothetic), Paradigm Shift, Perspectives in Geography (Positivism, Behaviouralism, Humanism, Structuralism, Feminism and Postmodernism).

Unit IX: Geographical Techniques

Sources of Geographic Information and Data (spatial and non-spatial), Types of Maps, Techniques of Map Making (Choropleth, Isarithmic, Dasymetric, Chorochromatic, Flow Maps) Data Representation on Maps (Pie diagrams, Bar diagrams and Line Graph, GIS Database (raster and vector data formats and

attribute data formats). Functions of GIS (conversion, editing and analysis), Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Georeferencing (coordinate system and map projections and Datum), GIS Applications ( thematic cartography, spatial decision support system), Basics of Remote Sensing (Electromagnetic Spectrum, Sensors and Platforms, Resolution and Types, Elements of Air Photo and Satellite Image Interpretation and Photogrammetry), Types of Aerial Photographs, Digital Image Processing: Developments in Remote Sensing Technology and Big Data Sharing and its applications in Natural Resources Management in India, GPS Components (space, ground control and receiver segments) and Applications, Applications of Measures of Central Tendency, Dispersion and Inequalities, Sampling, Sampling Procedure and Hypothesis Testing (chi square test, t test, ANOVA), Time Series Analysis, Correlation and Regression Analysis, Measurement of Indices, Making  Indicators Scale Free, Computation of Composite Index, Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis, Morphometric Analysis: Ordering of Streams, Bifurcation Ratio, Drainage Density and Drainage Frequency, Basin Circularity Ratio and Form Factor, Profiles, Slope Analysis, Clinographic Curve, Hypsographic Curve and Altimetric Frequency Graph.

Unit – X: Geography of India

Major Physiographic Regions and their Characteristics; Drainage System (Himalayan and Peninsular), Climate: Seasonal Weather Characteristics, Climatic Divisions, Indian Monsoon (mechanism and characteristics), Jet Streams and Himalayan Cryosphere, Types and Distribution of Natural Resources: Soil, Vegetation, Water, Mineral and Marine Resources. Population Characteristics (spatial patterns of distribution), Growth and Composition (rural-urban, age, sex, occupational, educational, ethnic and religious), Determinants of Population, Population Policies in India, Agriculture ( Production, Productivity and Yield of Major Food Crops), Major Crop Regions, Regional Variations in Agricultural Development, Environmental, Technological and Institutional Factors affecting Indian Agriculture; Agro-Climatic Zones, Green Revolution, Food Security and Right to Food. Industrial Development since Independence, Industrial Regions and their characteristics, Industrial Policies in India. Development and Patterns of Transport Networks (railways, roadways, waterways, airways and pipelines), Internal and External Trade (trend, composition and directions), Regional Development Planning in India, Globalisation and its impact on Indian Economy, Natural Disasters in India (Earthquake, Drought, Flood, Cyclone, Tsunami, Himalayan Highland Hazards and Disasters.)

Link : UGC

Dr. Bachan Singh

Abhipray

The Institute of Geography

Jaipur. 9782526093